limonite troughs and saprolite highs

Makmur Lestari Primatama

Saprolite Nickel Ore forms below the Limonite zone. Saprolite generally contains about 1.5% -2.5% Ni and is classified as a high grade laterite ore. By going through the Pyometallurgy process, Saprolite is used as a raw material for Ferronickel production.

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BHP Ravensthorpe Nickel Operation, Australia

The saprolite ore also upgrades but to a lesser extent. Processing is a combination of pressure acid leach (PAL) and atmospheric leach (AL), called enhanced pressure acid leach (EPAL). The limonite is treated by PAL, while the saprolite is treated by AL using the PAL discharge and additional acid.

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(PDF) Ni grade distribution in laterite characterized from

Ni grade distribution in laterite characterized from geostatistics, topography and the paleo-groundwater system in Sorowako, Indonesia

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Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional

Jun 28, 2007The Cretaceous-Eocene volcano-sedimentary units of the Zonguldak region of the western Black Sea consist of subalkaline andesite and tuff, and sandstone dominated by smectite, kaolinite, accessory chlorite, illite, mordenite, and analcime associated with feldspar, quartz, opal-CT, amphibole, and calcite. Kaolinization, chloritization, sericitization, albitization, Fe–Ti-oxidation, and the

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how is limonite mined and processed

Extraction of Iron from Limonite Xinhai. General, the extraction of iron from limonite can adopt gravity separation strongic separation process to obtain the good effect, that is, the limonite is sent to washing after the fine crushing or rod mill, then sent to screening, classifying and desXinhai process, the coarse grain is processed by gravity separation process to obtain concentrate, the

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INCREASE OF IRON CONTENT IN RELATION TO SPECIFIC

47.90% respectively at the depth of 2.00 - 2.70 m in the red limonite zone. The highest clay content of borehole is 43.50% at a depth of 9.00 - 9.50 m in the saprolite zone. The percentage of sand opposite to silt is the high percentage of sand in the red limonite zone, decreasing in the yellow limonite zone and increasing in the saprolite zone

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Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Loma Ortega Ni

Profile 2 (high Ni grade) 50 m isdeep. Four zones are recognized from bottom to top: peridotite protolith ( 15 m) → coarse saprolite (18 m) soft saprolite → (15 m, the ore horizon) → ferruginous saprolite or yellow-red limonite (2 m). The peridotite protolith from profile2 is broadly similar to that of profile 1 and

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Agata Nickel Processing Project

While the current Agata DSO operation (See: Agata Nickel Laterite DSO Project) is focused on the upper limonite zones and the lower saprolite zones of the Agata laterite orebody, which consist mostly of high-iron/low-nickel ore, the Agata Nickel Processing Project will be focused on the lower limonite and saprolite zones in order to produce a

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SEQUENTIAL LEACHING OF NICKEL LATERITE ORES

relatively high levels of silicon, iron and aluminium in the sample. The Rwp value is 18.61% which is higher than that obtained for the limonite ore but can still be said to be a good fit. Figure 3: Nontronite QXRD Saprolite QXRD analysis of the saprolite ore (Figure 4) indicates the presence of lizardite (44.2%), nontronite

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Geoelectromagnetic Exploration For Natural Resources

Oct 12, 2004Natural resource systems are inherently 3D and require large numbers of depth soundings at high station densities to image adequately. Thus, developing methodsof increasing the productivity of data acquisition, the development of better 3D software tools and lowering costs are seen as the major challenges facing the use of geoelectromagnetic

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ALTA MetBytes

C. Limonite ore is fed to the first stage. Saprolite ore together with the first stage discharge are leached in the autoclave while iron is precipitated and acid regenerated. Bench and pilot scale testwork carried out from 2013 have shown that a total nickel and cobalt recovery of 93% can be achieved.

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Skye Resources' Sulphation Atmospheric Leach (SAL)

of Guatemala), processed the saprolite portion of the ore body from 1977 to 1980 to produce a nickel sulphide matte in a single rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) production (Sopko 1979). In 1980, the Exmibal plant was shut down and placed on care and maintenance due to a combination of high oil prices and low nickel prices.

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Nickel leaching from laterite ores by combination of

Aug 10, 2021The highest nickel extraction from limonite and saprolite ore by a combination of citric acid and sulfuric acid are 73% and 91%, respectively, after 8h of leaching at 95oC with solid liquid ratio of 5 %, stirring speed 200 rpm using 0.5 M citric acid + 2 M sulfuric acid and 2 M citric acid+0.5 M sulfuric acid, respectively.

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Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan Mineralization In Mid Part of

In general, laterite profiles can be distinguished into limonite zone, saprolite zone, and bedrock zone (Ahmad, 2008). 3.4.1 Red limonite zone Based on its physical, red limonite has a dark red color and is sometimes brownish red, has a thickness of 1-3.5 meters, loose, soft hardness level, has a high weathering rate, medium-

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limonite ore sand washer

limonite hematite iron ore Define iron ore: a native compound of iron (as hematite, limonite, magnetite, siderite, goethite, and the bog and clay iron ores) from which the. Limonite Mining Fundamentals It is one of the two major iron ores, the other being hematite .

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Nickel Asia posts record shipment volume amid lower prices

Jan 13, 2014The Cadianao mine, with six percent of total shipments, produced 350,000 WMT of saprolite ore and 539,000 WMT of limonite ore. The realized LME nickel price applicable to 5.2 million WMT of ore shipped in 2013 was at an average of $6.91 per pound of payable nickel, lower than the $8.10 per pound of payable nickel in 2012.

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Production Process of Ferronickel

Feb 04, 2012Limonite, which occur near the surface, easily mined. Limonite layer consists of a mixture of minerals that have a high iron and low MgO content. The general formula of goethite, (Fe,Ni)OOH, is used to represent limonite ores in chemical reactions; Saprolite, which occur below limonite. The saprolite ores have a low iron and a high MgO content.

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Limonite

Abstract: According to the ore nature of limonite in Xinjiang,use the technological process of one stage selectrifine high magnetic separation—reverse flotation to the limonite. the result show that at the fineness ore of -200order 60.0%, employ the closed-circuit process,Limonite concentrates aining above 52.24% Fe could be obtained at

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World of Metallurgy

Jul 05, 2017Limonite and saprolite ore zones were mined sep- basic reagent. Second, in spite of the high residual acid, the arately and the ores were blended at a weight ratio of 1:1 leaching efficiency of nickel was low, and only about 11.7 % (2 t:2 t, ca. dried). The chemical composition of the mixed of nickel were recovered (Table 2).

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High pressure acid leaching: a newly introduced technology

This study is aimed to assess the potential implementation of High-Pressure Acid Leaching (HPAL). HPAL is a proven technology but not utilized in Indonesia due to the high investment, and it requires a large media for waste disposal. Nickel limonite ore with grade 1.1 ─ 1.4 % can be processed using HPAL technology to produce more than 37%

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CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENTIAL SLOPE FAILURES ON

The slope failures (landslides) are commonly occurred on lithologic contacts (interface of limonite-saprolite and saprolite-bedrock as well) in which the failure mechanisms are presumed controlled by presence of a thin soft soil layer with high water content.The erratic ground profiles o the lateritic n

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Modeling of Hydrometallurgical Process Solutions with OLI

14 Solubility of Metals in H 2SO 4-H 2O Al Experimental data from Baghalha et al. 1998, Zhu 2002; Mg from Marshall et al. 1965; Ni from Marshall et al. 1962; Fe from Liu et al. 2003

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US Patent for Process for atmospheric leaching of laterite

Mar 19, 2009The power requirements and high iron to nickel ore ratio for the lower nickel content limonite and limonite/saprolite blends make this processing route too expensive, and these ores are normally commercially treated by a hydrometallurgical process such as the High Pressure Acid Leach (HPAL) process or combination of pyrometallurgical and

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Geology of Southern Palawan

The limonite has very brownish color and the saprolite exhibits very reddish brown color. This soil color is a possible correlation to its grade. Thus the soil are of great value due to its metal content. They are of high grade due to the fact that their plates where these outcrops belong have undergone a

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USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5070

The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon.

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An overview on the possibility of scandium and REE

enriched in limonite or saprolite since Sc is relatively mobile (soluble) in a limonite zone although it is an immobile element. In acidic limonite zone Sc3+ is not likely to adsorbed on hematite and goethite. In neutral-alkaline saprolite zone Sc3+ may be partially adsorbed in saprolite

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A comparative study of uranium–thorium accumulation at the

Jordan, located at the western edge of the Arabian Plate, stands out from the remaining part of the Arabian Peninsula by its abundance in radioactive elements, mainly uranium, in a way so far not found elsewhere on the Arabian Peninsula. Uranium (U) and thorium in Jordan are concentrated in eight different types of ore mineralization: (1) intrusive-related (intramagmatic), (2) vein-type, (3

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Victory's Completed Short Hole Program at Loner Indicates

Sep 05, 2021While all 50 holes delivered clay and saprolite mineralised intersections above the resource cut-off grade, notable results include: 8.2m at 1,359 parts per million (ppm) total rare earth oxides (TREO) from 3.3m (RRMDD324); 8.4m at 1,258ppm TREO from 2.8m (RRMDD316); 13.4m at 1,232ppm TREO from 4m (RRMDD320);

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The Effect of Bio

limonite and saprolite. Limonite is a low-grade ore, with a nickel content of 1.11.8mass%. Saprolite is a rich ore, with nickel content of more than 2mass%.57) Nickel can be extracted from laterites via hydrometallurgical or pyrome-tallurgical processes. This laterite ore is unsuitable for hydrometallurgical processes because of the high

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Geology Glossary

- A - a'a' lava - basaltic lava characterized by a rough or rubbly surface composed of broken lava blocks called clinker. A-horizon - The uppermost layer of a soil, containing organic material and leached minerals. abyssal plain - The ocean floor offshore from the continental margin, usually very flat with a slight slope. accrete - To add terranes (small land masses or pieces of crust) to

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High pressure acid leaching: a newly introduced technology

Jan 02, 2020HPAL is a proven technology but not utilized in Indonesia due to the high investment, and it requires a large media for waste disposal. Nickel limonite ore with grade 1.1 – 1.4 % can be processed using HPAL technology to produce more than 37% nickel and another beneficial product, which is cobalt.

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Sama Announces High Grade Graphite Intercepts at the 8.7km

Jun 06, 2014MONTREAL, QUEBEC--(Marketwired - Jun 6, 2014) - Sama Resources Inc./Ressources Sama Inc. (Sama or the Company) (TSX VENTURE:SME) is pleased to announce high grade graphite intersects from the initial 20 scout drill holes performed at the 8.7 kilometers (km) long Lola Graphite deposit in Eastern Guinea, West Africa. Assay results for the surface weathered profiles (0 to

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